People who are encouraged will always aim to achieve greater things because “if one praises a dog’s speed, it runs and gathers eggs” (Igbo Proverb)
“Yin ni, yin ni, ki Ori le wu, Ki asi le se omiran (Yoruba Proverb)
What do we mean by motivation?
There are many definitions of motivation. These are two that are particularly relevant:
Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. In the work goal context the psychological factors stimulating the people’s behavior can be -
desire for money
team work, etc.
One of the most important functions of management is to create willingness amongst the employees to perform in the best of their abilities. Therefore the role of leader is to arouse interest in performance of employees in their jobs. The process of motivation consists of three stages:-
1. A felt need or drive
2. A stimulus in which needs have to be aroused
3. When needs are satisfied, the satisfaction or accomplishment of goals.
Therefore, we can say that motivation is a psychological phenomenon which means needs and wants of the individuals have to be tackled by framing an incentive plan.
‘Motivation is the energizer of behavior and mother of all action.’
‘In psychology, motivation is the intention of achieving a goal, leading to goal-directed behavior.’
In Scouting, motivation is the energizer that achieves the goal of creating an environment in which you, our Leaders, are challenged, supported, enthused, rewarded and given the opportunity to progress to their full potentials. Motivated Leaders are happy Leaders who contribute to the Scouting family.
Leadership development refers to any activity that enhances the quality of leadership within an individual or organization. These activities have ranged from training programs offered at higher institutions to action learning, high-ropes courses and executive retreats.
Traditionally, leadership development has focused on developing the leadership abilities and attitudes of individuals.
Just as people are not all born with the ability or desire to lead.Different personal traits and characteristics can help or hinder a person's leadership effectiveness and require formalized programs for developing leadership competencies yet everyone can develop their leadership effectiveness. Achieving such development takes focus, practice and persistence. The success of leadership development efforts has been linked to three variables:
Individual learner characteristics
The quality and nature of the leadership development program
Genuine support for behavioral change from the leader's supervisor
Why is Motivation important?
We need to understand why people volunteer. If we have a better understanding of what drives our Leaders and what their needs are, we will be better able to motivate them. Everyone is different. There are general motivators, of course; but we must focus on the needs of the individual. Motivated Leaders:
· Are creative in reaching their goals.
· Perform to a higher standard.
· Carry projects successfully through to completion.
· Spread their motivation to others.
And remember, happy Leaders mean happy members!
Motivation is an integral part of life-long learning. We need to remember to motivate at all times. For example, in meetings, during projects and while training. Motivation is not something we do before or after a task; it is part of everything we do.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
The needs have been classified into the following in order:
1. Physiological needs-These are the basic needs of an individual which includes food, clothing, shelter, air, water, etc. These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life.
2. Safety needs-These needs are also important for human beings. Everybody wants job security, protection against danger, safety of property, etc.
3. Social needs-These needs emerge from society. Man is a social animal. These needs become important. For example- love, affection, belongingness, friendship, conversation, etc.
4. Esteem needs-These needs relate to desire for self-respect, recognition and respect from others.
5. Self-actualization needs-These are the needs of the highest order and these needs are found in those person whose previous four needs are satisfied. This will include need for social service, meditation.
Motivation at different levels in Scouting for Leaders Development & Retention
Each of us has a role to play in Scouting and each role is important. Understanding the part each one of us plays in the bigger picture is a huge motivating factor for Retention. We are constantly motivating ourselves and others, in Scouting and in general.
We should be more aware of what these motivation factors are and remember to consider both internal and external motivation. We need to be creative, to be open and imaginative, and to think outside the box.
So, how can we integrate motivation into our everyday Scouting lives? By keeping it simple:
· We can work with others and use existing materials.
· We can make it an issue, something we are constantly aware of.
· We should be aware of different levels of motivation in different target groups; for example, Rovers, jamboree teams, district training teams.
Incentive is an act or promise for greater action. It is also called as a stimulus to greater action. Incentives are something which are given in addition to wages. Therefore, a hope for a reward is a powerful incentive to motivate employees.
Besides monetary incentive, there are some other stimuli which can drive a person to better. This will include job satisfaction, job security, job promotion, and pride for accomplishment. Therefore, incentives really can sometimes work to accomplish the goals of a concern. The need of incentives can be many:-
1. To increase productivity,
2. To drive or arouse a stimulus work,
3. To enhance commitment in work performance,
4. To psychologically satisfy a person which leads to job satisfaction,
5. To shape the behavior or outlook of subordinate towards work,
6. To inculcate zeal and enthusiasm towards work,
7. To get the maximum of their capabilities so that they are exploited and utilized maximally.
Therefore, management has to offer the following two categories of incentives to motivate employees:
1. Monetary incentives-Those incentives which satisfy the subordinates by providing them rewards in terms of Naira.
2. Non-monetary incentives-Besides the monetary incentives, there are certain non-financial incentives which can satisfy the ego and self- actualization needs of employees. The incentives which cannot be measured in terms of money are under the category of “Non- monetary incentives”.
A. Security of service-Job security is an incentive which provides great motivation to employees.
B. Praise or recognition-The praise or recognition is another non- financial incentive which satisfies the ego
needs of the employees.
Suggestion scheme-The organization should look forward to taking suggestions and inviting suggestion schemes from the subordinates. This inculcates a spirit of participation in the employees. This can be done by publishing various articles written by employees to improve the work environment which can be published in various magazines of the company.
Job enrichment-Job enrichment is another non- monetary incentive in which the job of a worker can be enriched. This can be done by increasing his responsibilities, giving him an important designation, increasing the content and nature of the work.
Promotion opportunities-Promotion is an effective tool to increase the spirit to work in a concern. If the employees are provided opportunities for the advancement and growth, they feel satisfied and contented and they become more committed to the organization.
The above non-financial tools can be framed effectively by giving due concentration to the role of employees. A combination of financial and non- financial incentives help together in bringing motivation and zeal to work in a concern.
Analyzing motivation factors
What motivates people to join Scouts and to stay involved?
Social networks– the sense of belonging to a group
· Scout of the World Programs,
· Global Support Programs,
· Messengers of Peace Global Network Program etc.
2. Achievement– completing concrete tasks and reaching goals.
· Going-up in Scouting:
· Tenderfoot, 2nd/1st Class, Eagle Scouting, Basic,
· Advanced Woodbadge
· Leadership Training. Etc.
3. Experience –discovering new ways of doing things, and learning new skills.
· 21ST Century Organization of Scouting.
· NSO Leadership & Governance,
· NSO Bench-Marking and Auditing.
· Partnership in Scouting. Etc.
4. Knowledge – finding out information and sharing what you know by teaching others.
· Scouting Methods
· Scouting AIMS & Objectives
· Vision & Mission Statements
· Strategic Priorities in Scouting. Etc.
5. Influence – when your behavior has a positive effect on others.
· Leadership Characteristics
· Leadership by Examples
· Role Modeling etc.
6. Commitment– to the values of Scouting, to our vision of a better world.
· Leadership commitment to Scouting Standards
· Controls Sensitivity.
· Process Development. Etc.
7. Contribution – being part of and perpetuating the life of the Movement.
· International Scouting Events – Jamborees and Camporees.
· National NSO Management
· Global Support Programs
· Kudumails Communication etc.
8. Enjoyment – simply having fun, opportunity to travel.
· Scouting Watermanship,
· Compass & Orienteering
9. Personal interest– as a parent, productive use of free time.
· Growth in Scouting
· Camping & Hiking etc.
10. Personal development– for life-long learning, developing ‘soft’ skills.
· Education for life
· Rewards & Recognitions
· Life-long Development etc.
Sharing best practices
One of the strengths of Scouting is that there are so many people to learn from; so many different ways of doing things. Share your findings with others and listen to what they have to say, to what they think about it. Take a look outside Scouting as well. For example:
· Red Cross
· Voluntary Fire Brigade
· Citizens Patrols
Rather than simply copying an activity, try to understand what makes it work. Don’t be afraid to try new things and new ways to do old things. Modify them to fit according to the people, place and time.
Incorporate motivation into general training
In all levels of Leader training, there should be a module on motivation. This should include both theory and practical tips on how to apply this theory to different situations and different Leaders.
Keep the topic alive in trainings. Start with discussions about what motivates participants. Analyze this to understand their needs and use this information in further training and work. If motivation is to become an integral part of everything we do, however, it should not be restricted to formal training. We should learn by doing and be aware of it in everything we do.
Make motivation part of managing our human capital
So, how can we motivate Adults in Scouting? A simple 'thank you, well done...' is a good start. Be interested in the results of their work.
Motivation is something that we need all the time. If we are motivated, we can bring our ideas to life for others and motivate them as well. If we find a way to recharge our ideas, then we can maintain our motivation and reach our goals.
Of course goals are important, but maybe more important is the journey we take to reach them. Along the way, we need to stay motivated ourselves and motivate those around us. When motivation is an active part of an Association, it will naturally become part of everything that Association does.
Herzberg's findings revealed that certain characteristics of a leadership are consistently related to Scout assignment satisfaction, while different factors are associated with Scout assignment dissatisfaction. These are:
Factors for Satisfaction
Factors for Dissatisfaction
· Values of Scouting
· Relationship with Scouts and Leaders
· Scouting environment