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28. Nov 2013

A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is normally dry. The European Union (EU) Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water.

In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river or lake, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood.
While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals.

Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers. While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is usually flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry.
Some Flood Photographs received from Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) on the 21st of September 2013, 9:00PM Network News.

In many countries around the world, waterways prone to floods are often carefully managed. Defenses such as detention basins, levees, bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent waterways from overflowing their banks. When these defenses fail, emergency measures such as sandbags or portable inflatable tubes are often used to try and stem flooding. Coastal flooding has been addressed in portions of Europe and the Americas with coastal defenses, such as sea walls, beach nourishment, and barrier islands.
In the near rivers and streams, erosion control measures can be taken to try and slow down or reverse the natural forces that cause many waterways to meander over long periods of time. Flood controls, such as dams, can be built and maintained over time to try and reduce the occurrence and severity of floods as well.
In areas prone to urban flooding, one solution is the repair and expansion of man-made sewer systems and storm-water infrastructure. Another strategy is to reduce impervious surfaces in streets, parking lots and buildings through natural drainage channels, porous paving, and wetlands (collectively known as green infrastructure or sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS).
Areas identified as flood-prone can be converted into parks and playgrounds that can tolerate occasional flooding. Ordinances can be adopted to require developers to retain storm-water on site and require buildings to be elevated, protected by floodwalls and levees, or designed to withstand temporary inundation. Property owners can also invest in solutions themselves, such as re-landscaping their property to take the flow of water away from their building and installing rain barrels, sump pumps and check valves.
Some methods of flood control have been practiced since ancient times. These methods include planting vegetation to retain extra water, terracing hillsides to slow flow downhill, and the construction of floodways (man-made channels to divert floodwater). Other techniques include the construction of levees, lakes, dams, reservoirs or retention ponds to hold extra water during times of flooding.

1. Temporary Perimeter Barriers: In 1988, a method of using water to control was discovered. This was accomplished by containing 2 parallel tubes within a third outer tube. When filled, this structure formed a non-rolling wall of water that can control 75% of its height in external water depth, with dry ground behind it.

2. Dams: Many dams and their associated reservoirs are designed completely or partially to aid in flood protection and control. Many large dams have flood-control reservations in which the level of a reservoir must be kept below a certain elevation before the onset of the rainy/summer melt season so as to allow a certain amount of space in which floodwaters can fill.

3. Self-closing flood barrier: The self-closing flood barrier (SCFB) is a flood defense system to protect people and property from inland waterway floods caused by heavy rainfall, gales or rapid melting snow. The SCFB can be built to protect residential properties and whole communities, as well as industrial or other strategic areas.

4. River defenses: In many countries, rivers are prone to floods and are often carefully managed. Defenses such as levees, bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent rivers from bursting their banks. When these defenses fail, emergency measures such as sandbags or portable inflatable tubes are used.

5. Tide gates: Tide gates are used in conjunction with dykes and culverts. They can be placed at the mouth of streams or small rivers, where an estuary begins or where tributary streams, or drainage ditches connect to sloughs. Tide gates close during incoming tides to prevent tidal waters from moving upland, and open during outgoing tides to allow waters to drain out via the culvert and into the estuary side of the dike. The opening and closing of the gates is driven by a difference in water level on either side of the gate.

According to the Founder of Scouting Movement, Lord Robert Stephenson Baden Powell (Chief Scout of the World): He defined “Peace as not only the absence of War, but our relationships with Nature and our Environment”
Flood eradication project has been identified as one of the numerous Messengers of Peace Projects.
How do we eradicate Flooding?
1. By Trees planting- Our Goal in the Nigeria NSO will focus at plating many trees that will serve as Shelter against Ozone layers that have been depleting years back.
2. Planting Trees within Flood prone areas so as to cushioning the effect of erosions during rainy season.
3. Clean our various Waterways like Gutters, Under-bridges and drain ways, so as to allow free flow of Rain water from smaller canals to bigger channels.
4. Create Awareness on the need to start to prevent Flooding from happening. The awareness should be done in concert with the Government of your State Scout Council and other Voluntary Organizations.
5. Encourage Government to build Drainages and Dams that could accommodate Flooding Water and for conversions into Water for Plants irrigations.
6. Campaign against people dumping refuges in drainages so as not to block the Waterways.
All the above Six Projects could be done under your Districts, Divisions (Area/Provincial), and States Messengers of Peace (MoP) Coordination.
Let me conclude by saying:
Mathematically, If Scouting represented with (X) is with the Vision of Creating Real Contributions towards making this World a better place; and she is looking at Preventive Solutions against some anti-Peace issues and concerns.
Equally we have other Organizations (YZ) too that are very good at providing Support/Solutions when there are Catastrophes.
• If Scouting Organization X is working Preventives…….Equation 2
• Other Organizations YZ are working Curatives………Equation 3
• By factoring in Equation 1 into Equations 2 & 3, we will have:
• Scouting Organization X is better than YZ Organization....Equation 4